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Governor Jim Rhodes? visit to Kent Sunday morning does little to clarify rules about students? gathering and the protests begin afresh Sunday afternoon. They?re start relatively peacefully, but become increasingly hostile and 51 people are arrested.

Excerpts from the President's Commission on Campus Unrest - Scranton Report
Governor Rhodes Condemns Protesters
????"At 10:00 am Sunday, while Kent State President White was on his way home from Iowa by plane, Governor Rhodes arrived in Kent and held a news conference. Among those present to hear Rhodes were his chief aide McElroy, General Del Corso, Mayor Satrom, KSU Vice President Matson, Ohio Highway Patrol Superintendent Robert N. Chiaramonte, Portage County Prosecutor Ronald J. Kane, U.S. Attoney Robert Krupansky, Kent Police Chief Roy Thompson and Kent Fire Chief Fred Miller.?

Governor Rhodes makes "Brownshirts" speech

????After the governor departed, widespread uncertainty regarding rules, prohibitions, and proclamations remained. Many people were unsure about what was to be legal and what not, particularly with respect to rallies and demonstrations.

Kent State President Robert I. White delivers four-point statement, announces that the Ohio National Guard will stay on campus

????The university prepared and distributed 12,000 leaflets, again signed by Matson and Frisina. The leaflet listed curfew hours; said the governor through the National guard has assumed legal control of the campus; stated that all outdoor demonstrations and rallies, peaceful or otherwise, were prohibited by the state of emergency; and said the Guard was empowered to make arrests. Canterbury later cited this leaflet, which was based on an interpretation given to a university administrator by one of his officers, as one source of his authority for banning rallies.

????Many students remained confused all day Sunday about the rules governing the campus and what they permitted.

????About noon, the National Guard asked Schwartzmiller for a bullhorn to use in dispersing sightseers at the ROTC ruins. Schwartzmiller complied, although he believed the Guard was being overzealous. In the afternoon, a group of 23 faculty members issued a statement deploring the Guard's presence on campus and student rock-throwing and violence during the previous two days. But the statement also suggested that the building burning should be viewed in the context of the war in Vietnam and the American move into Cambodia. A group of about 60 teachers asked White to call a full facility meeting immediately. He declined ? permission of the Guard would have been required for such an assembly, and in any case the request did not come from the proper body.


Sunday's Protests
????On Sunday afternoon, the campus was generally quiet, and many students felt the worst was over. Sightseers visited the ruins of the ROTC building, and some students conversed with guardsmen. Students began gathering on the Commons about 8:00pm. The crowd was peaceful and included a group of coeds kicking a soccer ball around. But by 8:45pm, it had grown so large that campus police and the Highway Patrol suggested to Colonel Finley that the 1:00am campus curfew be canceled and an immediate curfew imposed. As a result, shortly before 9:00pm, Major Jones read the Ohio Riot Act to the crowd on the Commons and gave them five minutes to disperse. When they did not, police proceeded to disperse them with tear gas. One group headed toward President White's house, another toward Prentice Gate.

Student protest leader reads demands during protest

????The students were driven away from White's home by tear gas. At Prentice Gate, there was a more serious confrontation. A sizable crowd sat down in the intersection of Lincoln and Main, next to the gate, and asked to speak with Satrom and White about six demands: abolition of ROTC; removal of the Guard from campus by Monday night; lifting of the curfew; full amnesty for all persons arrested Saturday night; lower student tuition; and granting of any demand made by the BUS (Black United Students).?

Riot act is read and crowd reacts during student protests on campus of Kent State

????Matson and Ronald Roskins, vice president for administration, were at the administration building when a police officer told them the crowd wanted to talk to White. Matson and Roskens rejected the idea. They felt that the Guard was in charge of the campus and that there was no point in negotiating in the streets.

Ohio National Guardsmen talk about the student protests on campus of Kent State, "How would Rhodes like to stay forever?"

????At 11:00 pm, police were told that the two officials would not talk to the demonstrators. The Riot Act was read to the crowd, and Colonel Finley told them the curfew was in effect as of 11:00pm.

Protests Turn Ugly
????The students, previously nonviolent, became hostile. They felt that they had been double-crosses. They cursed the guardsmen and police and threw rocks at them. Tear gas was fired and the crowd ran back from the gate across the campus lawn.

????During the confusion of the dispersal, two students were bayoneted and sustained minor cuts. Three guardsmen received cuts and bruises from thrown stones and a wrench.

????With tear gas, guardsmen drove a group of about 300 young persons across the campus to the Tri-Towers dormitory area. A helicopter has been hovering over the Prentice Gate sit-in. Its spotlight illuminated the scene, following the students as they ran. Its wash increased the effectiveness of the gas along the ground. Among the fleeing Kent State students was Allison Krause.

????Another group of students ran to the Rockwell Memorial Library, the building closest to the gate, and climbed through windows to get inside. A coed was reportedly bayoneted as she attempted to climb through a window. Some of the library windows were broken by rocks. The night guard locked the doors, sealing the students inside. They were later given a 45-minute grace period to leave the building and return to their dormitories.

Recollections of an order to shoot Sunday night

????Fifty-one persons were arrested Sunday night, most of them for curfew violations. This brought the total of arrests to more than 100 since the disturbances had begun."

(pg. 253-259)